Dengue is a highly endemic, mosquito-transmitted disease and is rapidly becoming a leading cause of global disease burden.
World Health Organization (WHO) study on the prevalence of dengue estimates that 3.9 billion people are at risk of infection with the virus. In spite of infection risk existing in 129 countries, 70% of the actual burden is in Asia.1
Primarily, Dengue is caused by any of the 4 distinct serotypes of Dengue virus: DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4.2
Clinical manifestations of Dengue disease vary from mild fever to severe conditions like dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome.2,3
Signs and Symptoms of Dengue
The course of Dengue follows three phases: Febrile, Critical, and Convalescent. The febrile phase is characterized by sudden onset of high fever accompanied by frontal headache, body aches, nausea, vomiting, joint pains, weakness, rash, and other non-specific symptoms. Patients in the first phase may be anorexic, have altered taste, and have a mild sore throat. Occasionally, constipation and diarrhea along with signs of respiratory distress are also reported.
The critical phase of dengue is potentially fatal with a temperature approximately of 37.5°C to 38°C or even less and can progress to fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, or organ impairment. The recovery phase is the last phase and includes gradual re-absorption of extravascular fluid in the span of 2-3 days. Often, the patient had bradycardia at this time.1,3
Diagnosis of Dengue
If anyone suspects dengue, a blood sample should be taken as early as possible. NS1 antigen test is suggested within the first 5-7days of the illness.
Commonly used 5 basic serologic tests for diagnosis of dengue infection are hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), complement fixation (CF), neutralization test (NT), IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA), and indirect IgG ELISA. Platelet counts need to be monitored as per the treating physician’s advice.1-3
Dr. Dangs Lab recommends their Fever Panels blood tests (Basic & Advance) to guide the Physician by screening for a few of the common causes for fevers (included in FP basic) such as Malaria, Typhoid, Dengue, and Urine infections. It also includes a CBC with ESR which is often the most prescribed test for any fever and offers a wealth of information by way of blood counts including the platelet count.
This helps in defining the nature of fever and its treatment. Moreover, Dr. Dangs Lab’s - Fever Panel Advanced blood test has all the benefits of the Fever panel Basic, along with culture/ sensitivity for urine, throat, and blood samples to check for bacterial growth and provide antibiotics that the infection would respond and be resistant to. HS-CRP helps to check the level of inflammation coexisting with the fever and is also an important marker to herald recovery.
To conclude, awareness of the general public, timely prevention and the right test at the right time are crucial to combat Dengue.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Dengue is widespread throughout the tropics, with local variations in risk influenced by climate parameters as well as social and environmental factors. Dengue causes a wide spectrum of diseases. This can range from subclinical disease (people may not know they are even infected) to severe flu-like symptoms in those infected. Although less common, some people develop severe dengue, which can be associated with complications like severe bleeding, organ impairment, and/or plasma leakage. Severe dengue has a higher risk of death when not managed appropriately.
Publisher’s name- Dr. Dangs Lab
Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for a qualified medical opinion.