Q. What is HPV?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common viral infection. HPV is mostly sexually transmitted, but Skin-to-skin genital contact is also a well-recognized mode of transmission. There are over 150 strains of HPV and most of them do not cause any problems. Few strains (i.e., high-risk HPV) cause problems by changing cells from normal to abnormal.1
Q. Does HPV cause health problems?
HPV infections usually subside without any medical intervention within a few months after the acquisition, and about 90% clear within 24 months. However, a small proportion of infections with certain types of HPV can persist and progress into fatal diseases or conditions such as cervical cancer.2,3
Q. Who is at risk for HPV infections?
HPV infections are very common. It is being noted that nearly all sexually active individuals are/ become infected with HPV soon after they become sexually active.2,3
Q. How did I get the HPV virus?
Anyone can get HPV. It is a common sexually transmitted infection. Moreover, HPV can be passed even when an infected person has no signs or symptoms.4
Q. Does HPV cause cancer?
There are two categories of sexually transmitted HPV that are Low-risk HPV & High- risk HPV. Low-risk HPV can lead to the development of warts on or around your genitals, anus, mouth, or throat. High-risk HPV can cause notable morbidities and mortalities.2,3
Moreover, most HPV infections don't cause cancer. But when a high-risk HPV infection lasts for a longer duration (many years), it can lead to cell changes. If these changes are not screened early and not treated, they may lead to cancer and fatalities.3
Long-lasting infections with high-risk HPVs can progress to cervical and other cancers, including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. It can also cause cancer in the back of the throat- called oropharyngeal cancer. This can also include the base of the tongue and tonsils. HPV infects the squamous cells lining the inner surfaces of these organs. Due to this reason, most HPV-related cancers are a type of cancer known as squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, few cervical cancers occur from HPV infection of gland cells in the cervix and are called adenocarcinomas.4,6
To date, there is no definite way to know who will develop cancer or other associated health problems from HPV. It is usually observed that individuals with weak immune systems (such as people with HIV & or people on immunosuppressants) may be less able to fight off HPV and they are more likely to develop health problems from HPV.5,6 Don’t guess, get your screening done at the earliest, visit www.drdangslab.com and or mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Q. How does HPV spread?
HPV spreads through contact with infected skin, most commonly through sexual contact. Most infected individuals are asymptomatic and are unaware that they are infected and can transmit the virus to their partner.5
Q. Does HPV Infection Cause Symptoms?
Most people who become infected with HPV depict no symptoms. However, a few HPV-infected individuals may develop visible genital warts, or have pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, vulva, anus, or penis. These warts usually appear as soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored swellings, particularly in the genital area. Their presentation varies, it can be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large, and sometimes cauliflower shaped. They can appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina or anus, on the cervix, and on the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh. These precancerous cell changes caused by a persistent HPV infection at the cervix rarely cause symptoms, which is why regular cervical cancer screening is very important. The lesions at other sites in the body may cause symptoms like itching or bleeding. Moreover, if an HPV infection progress into cancer, cancer may cause symptoms like bleeding, pain, or swollen glands.5,6To learn more about HPV screening, diagnosis, and prevention, visit www.drdangslab.com and or mail us at email@example.com.
Q. What Cancers Are Caused by HPV Infection?
HPV-related cancers include:
Routine screening is the only way you can prevent most cervical cancers. Early screening allows health care providers to diagnose and remove precancerous cells before they develop into cancer.4,6 Learn more about screening and diagnostic tests for cervical cancer at www.drdangslab.com.
Oropharyngeal cancers (cancer in the back of the throat):
Based on data accumulated by CDC from 2014 to 2018, about 46,143 HPV-associated cancers occur in the United States each year; and oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils) are the most common among men.
Symptoms of oropharyngeal cancer include a long-lasting sore throat, earaches, hoarseness, swollen lymph nodes, pain when swallowing, and unexplained weight loss.6 If you have any such symptoms that worry you, be sure to get your screening done right away at Dr. Dangs Lab.
Screening saves lives. Don’t guess. Know it with Dr. Dangs Lab. Visit www.drdangslab.com for more details.
Learn about the importance of getting recommended screening tests for penile cancer, a rare type of cancer from our experts. Visit www.drdangslab.com for more details.
Vaginal & Vulvar cancers:
Early diagnosis is crucial. Be sure with Dr. Dangs Lab. Visit www.drdangslab.com for more details and book your tests right away.
Q. How is HPV infection diagnosed?
Cervical pre-cancer and cancer screening for women is done based on an abnormal Pap test and/or a specific DNA test to detect the presence of HPV. Cervical cancer screening recommendations vary by age and medical history and should be discussed with a healthcare professional.
The American Cancer Society’s (ACS) new guideline has two major differences from previous guidelines. One is to start screening at a slightly older age, and the other is to preferentially recommend a type of screening test called an HPV test. ACS recommends cervical cancer screening with an HPV test alone every 5 years for everyone with a cervix from age 25 until age 65. If HPV testing alone is not available, people can get screened with an HPV/Pap cotest every 5 years or a Pap test every 3 years.8
For more details about the PAP test- visit www.drdangslab.com
Q. Is it true that Partners of uncircumcised men have a higher risk of cervical cancer than partners of men who have been circumcised?
Q. Does Male Circumcision Reduce Women's Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Cervical Cancer, and Associated Conditions?
Evaluation of the data from the studies retrieved showed that circumcision in males is associated with a reduced risk in women of being infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and contracting cervical cancer. Data from randomized controlled trials and other studies have confirmed that partners of men who have been circumcised are at reduced risk of contracting not only oncogenic HPV, but also Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, and possibly genital ulcer disease. For herpes simplex virus type 2, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus, and candidiasis, the evidence is mixed.9
Q. Does smoking make HPV infection more difficult to clear?
Although cigarette smoking has been associated with increased human papillomavirus (HPV) detection, its impact on HPV DNA load is unknown. Smoking interferes with the incidence and prevalence of HPV infection and is associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive Cervical Carcinomas.10,11
Q. Can genital HPV infection be cured?
The immune system usually eliminates the virus from the body. However, a small percentage of people with HPV remain infected for many years, which may progress into genital warts or cancer.5,7 If you have any symptoms, you can discuss diagnostic options with us @Dr. Dangs Lab.
Q. How to treat HPV infections?
Visible genital warts can be removed by topical medications, or by other treatments such as cauterization performed by your healthcare provider. It is important to understand that no one treatment is best. Warts might return, especially within the first 3 months after treatment. Moreover, it is not known whether treatment of genital warts will reduce the chance of passing the virus on to a sex partner. If left untreated, genital warts may go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number. Screening and timely diagnosis are the keys to eliminating the progression of HPV.5,9Visit www.drdangslab.com for more details and book your tests right away.
Q. How can people reduce their risk of acquiring genital HPV infection?
A few ways to eliminate the risk of HPV infection are: -
To learn more about HPV screening, diagnosis, and prevention, visit www.drdangslab.com and or mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Q. Who recommends the HPV vaccine?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) all recommend routine HPV vaccination of boys and girls at 11 or 12 years of age.5
Q. How is this vaccine given?
This vaccine is given as an injection in the deltoid muscle of the arm.4,5
Q. What are the recommendations for use of the HPV vaccine in people 9-26 years of age?
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that routine HPV vaccination be initiated for all children at age 11 or 12 years. Vaccination can be started as early as age 9 years. Vaccination is also recommended for all people aged 13 through 26 years who have not been vaccinated previously or who have not completed the vaccination series.5
Q. How many doses are needed and on what schedule?
The schedule for the HPV vaccine depends on the age at which the first dose is given. For people starting the vaccine series before the age of 15 years, the recommended schedule is 2 doses, separated by 6 to 12 months. If vaccination is started at age 15 years or older, the schedule is 3 doses. The second dose should be given one to two months after the first dose and the third dose should be given six months after the first dose and at least 12 weeks after the second dose. The vaccine can be administered at the same visit as other needed vaccines. Individuals with certain immunocompromising conditions (e.g., cancer, HIV, taking immunosuppressive drugs) should follow the 3-dose schedule, regardless of age. The vaccine provides the best protection when given before the onset of sexual activity.5
Q. How long does vaccine protection last? Will a booster shot be needed?
The length of immunity is usually not known when a vaccine is first introduced. So far, studies have shown people to still be protected after more than 10 years. More research is being done to find out how long protection will last, and if a booster dose will eventually be needed5.
Q. What is a Pap smear and where can I have one done?
A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on your cervix. Visit www.drdangslab.com to book your appointment.12
Q. When should I have a Pap smear?
Pap smear testing is recommended every 3 years for women between the age of 25 and 65 years. Women over 30 years can consider PAP smear testing every 5 years if the procedure is combined with testing for HPV.8
Q. Who needs a Pap smear?
Pap smear is recommended for all women in the age group of 25-65 years.8You should get regular Pap smears based on your age, regardless of your sexual activity status. That’s because the HPV virus can be dormant for years and then suddenly become active.8
Following individuals may need more frequent tests if12
Q. What are the side effects of the HPV Vaccine?
Q. Do HPV vaccines have side effects?
Vaccines like any other medications can exhibits side effects. Below mentioned are few common side effects from HPV shots that are usually mild and can get better within a day or two.
Q. What tests does DR. DANGS LAB provides for Vaginal and Cervical health?
More than 150 strains of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified and approximately half of them infect the genital tract. Many types of HPV have been found in cervical cancers, while others are found rarely or not at all in large series of cancers, which gives rise to the nomenclature of ‘high-’ and ‘low-risk’ HPVs. Cervical pre-cancer and cancer screening for women is done based on an abnormal Pap test and/or a specific DNA test to detect the presence of HPV. Cervical cancer screening recommendations vary by age and medical history and should be discussed with a healthcare professional. The American Cancer Society’s (ACS) new guideline has two major differences from previous guidelines. One is to start screening at a slightly older age, and the other is to preferentially recommend a type of screening test called an HPV test. ACS recommends cervical cancer screening with an HPV test alone every 5 years for everyone with a cervix from age 25 until age 65. If HPV testing alone is not available, people can get screened with an HPV/Pap cotest every 5 years or a Pap test every 3 years.
Publisher’s name- Dr. Dangs Lab
Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for a qualified medical opinion.